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Rambler's Top100



IAC
INTERSTATE AVIATION COMMITTEE (MAK)
CIS


Chairman of the Interstate Aviation Committee
T. Anodina, Chairman of the Interstate Aviation Committee



Background

In November 1991, the USSR State Council adopted a decision (GS-13) regarding "the abolishment of USSR ministries and other central bodies of state management". These included the USSR commission for airspace use and air traffic control, the USSR commission for state oversight of flight safety (the so called Gozavianadzor responsible for independent accident investigation and certification of aircraft) and the USSR Ministry of Civil Aviation.

... a decision adopted...

Thus, the civil aviation of the former USSR that continued to operate passenger and cargo air services, lost the oversight of flight safety and regulation of air traffic control and air space use. In these circumstances, the council of heads of economic union member states agreed December 6, 1991 (Decision N 5) to establish the Interstate Aviation Committee (MAK) that became a successor organization of the USSR commission for airspace use and air traffic control, the USSR commission for state oversight of flight safety and the USSR Ministry of Civil Aviation (with responsibilities agreed by the contracting states).

Created when?

After the above decision was adopted, the heads of 12 newly established independent states concurred with the need to promote the activity of Interstate Aviation Committee and signed December 30, 1998 the Agreement on Civil Aviation and Airspace Use (hereinafter called the Agreement) which delegated certain functions and responsibilities to MAK. In early 1992 Presidents of Russia, Ukraine, Belorus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and other signatories of the Agreement issued respective orders and decisions to execute the Agreement in their sovereign states.

This move enabled to ensure the integrity and coordinate the performance of agencies critical for flight safety, aviation industry, maintenance base and specialists in various countries.

Established: How & by Whom?

Legal and Regulatory Basis for MAK's Activity

The Intergovernmental Agreement on Civil Aviation and Airspace Use of December 30, 1991 authorized MAK to execute functions and responsibilities delegated by 12 former USSR republics (Latvia and Estonia joined the Agreement as observers) in the field of civil aviation and airspace use.

In Russia in accordance with the Constitution, Article 79 (providing for participation of Russia in various intergovernmental bodies and delegation of certain functions thereto), Russian President's Orders N 439 (05.05.92) and N 904 (13.06.96) as well as Russian Government's Decisions N 367 (23.04.94) and N 1147 (08.09.97) MAK was delegated functions and responsibilities of the federal executive body of the Russian Federation in the field of standardization of airworthiness, certification of aircraft and manufacturing thereof, international airports and their equipment as well as independent investigation of air accidents. (As an intergovernmental arrangement, MAK does not have the status of federal executive body).

 

As for other functions related to airspace use, regulation of air transport operations etc, MAK was delegated coordinating responsibilities rather than executive ones. Specifically, the coordinating functions are being carried out through the special council for aviation and airspace use of contracting states.

All contracting states also acknowledged MAK's responsibilities and functions by respective President's orders and Government's decisions.

Functions

The MAK's status as an authorized body of civil aviation registered in all above regulatory and legal acts was acknowledged by the Air Code (Federal Law N 60 of 19.03.97), Articles 2, 6, 37, 48, 95, 96, 97, 98 (regarding the specially authorized body) and confirmed by the intergovernmental agreement between Russia and US signed 02.09.98 by Eugeny Primakov and Madlen Albright.

The above mentioned President's orders, Government's decisions as well as the FAAR's statute approved by the Russian Government on August 13, 1996 (Decision N 994) strictly differentiate the responsibilities and rights of both Federal Aviation Authority of Russia and MAK and make sure that these do not overlap. Responsibilities and rights of MAK and national civil aviation authorities of other contracting states are also strictly differentiated by the national regulations.

 

Responsibilities and activities of MAK are in full compliance with the international law. ICAO has registered MAK along with other similar interstate organizations for civil aviation such as European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and Eurocontrol representing respectively 23 and 16 European States, COSESNA representing 10 Central and South American States, ASECNA, representing 15 African States. MAK was also registered in CIS (registry N 1 of December 31, 1994).

...full compliance with the international law...

MAK signed more than 20 letters of agreement on the mutual recognition of certification, accident investigation activities etc with leading aviation States such as France, UK, Italy, Israel, Brazil, Egypt etc. Based on the similar letters of agreement MAK was also recognized by several international aviation organizations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Federation of Air Line Pilot Association (IFALPA) etc.

..worldwide recognition...

The Federal Law N 198-FZ of December 14, 1995, adopted by the State Duma on November 24, 1995 and approved by the Federal Assembly on November 28, 1995 ratified the agreement between the Russian Government and the Interstate Aviation Committee on the conditions of MAK's presence in Russia. Pursuant to the agreement the Russian Government provides MAK with conditions established for federal bodies of executive power and international (interstate) organizations deployed in Russia (MAK does not have the status of a diplomatic mission).

...approved by the Federal Assembly...

In accordance with Article 13 of the above agreement, MAK is a non-commercial organization. MAK employees as Russian citizens must comply with national civil and administrative regulations of Russia.

...non-commercial status...

Financing

Pursuant to Article 13 of the Agreement on Civil Aviation and Airspace Use, MAK is financed (including accident investigation) through the budgets (contributions) of contracting states as well as certification fees.

The share of allotments (contributions) by each and every state is established on the basis of air transportation level in contracting states.

Certification activities are financed by aircraft manufacturers applying for type certificates.

 

Organizational Structure

MAK consists of 5 main commissions:

  • Commission for certification and aviation rules ( MAK Aviaregister);
  • Commission for certification of airdromes and associated equipment;
  • Commission for air transport;
  • Commission for accident investigation on air transport;
  • Commission for airspace use and air traffic control.

Organization

Certification of Aircraft and Operations

To ensure airworthiness of civil aircraft, MAK has established a new standard database for certification purposes consisting of aviation rules (AR) harmonized with similar aviation rules in US (FAR) and Western Europe (JAR).

In July 1994, the State Committee for Standardization "Gosstandart" registered the MAK's aircraft and civil aviation sites certificate system in the State Register and issued the certificate N 0001.

MAK certified all aircraft and components thereof as well as engines manufactured by Russia and CIS, which underwent the necessary number of tests. All certification activities were carried out in cooperation with design bureaus, aviation industry research institutions and certification centers and were ensured by chief aircraft designers.

 

Presently MAK certified 27 types of Russian-made civil aircraft and extensive modifications thereof (12 types of aircraft, 11 aircraft modifications and 5 helicopter types), 11 types of Russian-made engines and propellers, 57 design organizations, 28 large aviation plans, 12 overhaul companies of Russia and CIS as well as more than 100 types of avionics. All Russian-made aircraft have noise certificates.

At present MAK Aviaregister carries out a type certification of 8 heavyweight aircraft, 13 lightweight aircraft, 4 rotorcraft, 8 engines and 4 propellers.

MAK Aviaregister does its best to promote new Russian-made aircraft at the international markets. The MAK -certified aircraft (Tupolev-204-120/120C) were recently exported to Egypt, (Mi-26 TS) South Korea, (SU-29) US, UK, Australia, France, (Ka-32a) Canada, Switzerland; An-38 are ready for export to India and Brazil (Mi-171A, Mi-172A, Ka-32A).

As far as certification of foreign-made aircraft is concerned, pursuant to the existing certification rules, MAK can not initiate such certification. MAK agrees to carry out necessary certification of foreign-made aircraft following the decision of aeronautical authorities of Operator State or on request of operator that made a contract on acquisition or leasing of foreign-made aircraft.

All MAK certified foreign-made aircraft undergo flight tests on the trial program developed by the aviation certification center (COSNII GA).

MAK Aviaregister does not issue certificates for aircraft failing to comply with Russian standards and non-adapted to Russian conditions of operation.

MAK has established an internationally recognized certification system, fully updated the national standard database for airworthiness of civil aircraft (technical requirements to aircraft design, strength of aircraft structures, performance, engines, systems, avionics, noise and other aircraft performance features), harmonized this database with similar European and American standards and whereby allowed a truly international recognition of Russian airworthiness requirements.

Certification requirements and procedures developed by MAK were implemented in Russia and other CIS states as common federal and national rules respectively.

Certification activities

Certification of Airdromes and their Equipment

MAK has certified more than 80 airdromes in contracting states (including more than 40 in Russia) and 40 samples of Russian-made airdrome equipment.

The certification of airdromes and their equipment is based on the MAK system of aviation rules for certification of airdromes, airdrome equipment and airways. Relevant aviation rules were approved and adopted by the majority of contracting states.

...more than 80 airdromes certified...

Accident Investigation

MAK's activity related to accident investigation is fully compliant with recommended international practice (ICAO Annexes N13, 6 etc for accident investigation and certification).

The main principle of the MAK's accident investigation is independence, which fully fits into the Article 6 of EU Directive of November 1996 that inter alia recommends that an accident investigation body or organization should be functionally independent especially from national aviation authorities responsible for airworthiness, flight operations, licensing, air traffic control and airport operations; and recommendations of International Air Transport Association (IATA) regarding independent accident investigation.

...fully compliant with practice...

As members of International Association of Accident Investigators, MAK specialists independently investigated more than 130 accidents including ones involving Russian aircraft and aircraft of contracting states abroad (Antonov-124 in Italy, Mi-8 in Vietnam, Tupolev-154 in Spitzbergen, Tupolev-154 in United Arabic Emirates) and foreign aircraft alike.

...investigated more than 130 accidents...

Presently MAK investigates approximately 70% of all accidents occurring in the territory of contracting states. The Russian Government approved by its decision (N609 of June 18, 1998) new rules for handling accident and incident investigation involving civil aircraft in the Russian Federation. Pursuant to this decision, MAK will fully provide independent accident investigation by 1999-2000.

...investigates approximately 70% of all accidents...

Investigations handled by MAK enabled to avoid inappropriate economic sanctions amounting to hundreds million dollars by other states against Russia and other contracting states.

Coordination of Air Transport Operations

As the experience proves many operators of contracting states are simply unable to cope with foreign competitors alone at the international markets since they are not reaching the level of their competitors in terms of technical and economic resources, level of services, marketing, modern reservation and ticketing systems, insurance and other factors.

 

Under these circumstances, MAK's main objectives regarding intestate air transport policies will include coordination of measures aimed at keeping acquired "niches" in the international aviation community, establishment of the system that meets air transportation requirements, promotion of air transport developments and its safe operations.

Main objectives

In cooperation with government and international agencies, MAK gradually carries out the policy aimed at the establishment of economic and organizational conditions that will provide accessible air transportation based on the fair competition, including the development of anti-trust and anti-damping regulations in the field of air transport services, adoption of agreed pricing policy, facilitation of customs and emigration procedures, solving of aviation security issues.

 

In the view of functions and responsibilities in the field of certification delegated to MAK by individual contracting states, MAK has certified more than 90 airlines and 10 training institutions of contracting states.

...over 90 airlines certified...

Coordination of Airspace Use and Air Traffic Control

Main areas of MAK's activities in this field include coordination with national air traffic management (ATM) authorities of contracting states to improve the procedures for airspace use and air traffic control, develop agreed CIS policies in terms of international air services, to rationalize the airspace and ATC infrastructure in the interface areas between contracting states, as well as reduce the number of discrepancies between the national standards of contracting states and ICAO states.

...to improve the procedures for airspace use and air traffic control...

Thus, MAK provided by contracting states with respective rights and responsibilities, acts in the interests of these states basing on the regulatory base of Russia and regulations of other states as well as the international law.

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